The exhaust silencer plays an incredibly crucial role to muffle the noise coming in the blasts inside a combustion engine .It is also used to cleanse the exhaust gases together with the assistance of a catalytic converter. Get more details about industrial silencers
The exhaust design,as you might have noticed,has a bulge towards the end. The reason behind creating this bulge is usually to provide a bigger cavity for the exhaust gases to flow,this mellows the sound coming directly from the engine and functions around the principle of a Helmholtz resonator.
One other design form, that my physics teacher taught me about ,incorporates splitting the exhaust stream into two with all the aid of a secondary channel emerging in the pipe then reconnecting it back .the length of this secondary channel is such that when the two sound streams meet once again ,they may be 180 degrees out of phase with respect to each other,this causes destructive interference at this junction! Therefore muffling the sound.
The catalytic converter catalyzes the redox reaction of ‘carbon monoxide-hydrocarbons’(ox) and ‘nitrogen oxides’(red) ,which essentially aids in converting pollutants to less harmful gases.